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  • Tortured Pleadings: The Historical Development and Recent Fall of the Liberal Pleadings Standard

    In the days after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Justice Department implemented Operation PENTTBOM (Pentagon/Twin Towers Bombing), a massive investigation under the aegis of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). As part of the investigation, federal law enforcement officials established various policies and procedures that included the arrest of hundreds of Arab and Muslim men, primarily on immigration related charges. The government identified these individuals as “September 11 detainees.” These men were subsequently confined to various facilities, including the Metropolitan Detention Center (MDC) in Brooklyn, New York. After a thorough investigation, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice (DOJ) concluded that many detainees were beaten, denied medical treatment, deprived of religious freedoms, and denied due process rights while in custody.